Undervisningsbeskrivelse

Stamoplysninger til brug ved prøver til gymnasiale uddannelser
Termin(er) 2018/19 - 2019/20
Institution Nørre Gymnasium
Fag og niveau Engelsk B
Lærer(e)
Hold 2018 En/z (1z En, 2z En)
Oversigt over gennemførte undervisningsforløb
Titel 1 Tema 1 EVIL
Titel 2 Tema 2 Trial Proceedings and The Death Penalty
Titel 3 TEMA 3 Going Mental
Titel 4 TEMA 4 GOTHIC FICTION
Titel 5 TEMA 5 DYSTOPIAS AND FEMINISM (Handmaid's Tale)
Titel 6 TEMA 6 Casualties of War - Tim O'Brien
Titel 7 TEMA 7 South Africa - After Apartheid

Beskrivelse af de enkelte undervisningsforløb (1 skema for hvert forløb)
Titel 1 Tema 1 EVIL

Wider Contexts : Introduction
Sean Spence 'Bad or Mad' (2004) Article

Warning to Parents (Elizabeth Jennings) Poem

The case of James Bulger (Sydney Morning Herald, 2016):
http://www.smh.com.au/lifestyle/life-and-relationships/real-life/the-boys-who-killed-james-bulger-20130208-2e2nd.html

The Guardian: Did bad parenting really turn these boys into killers? https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2000/nov/01/bulger.familyandrelationships

Shirley Jackson: The Possibility of Evil

Film clip about how violence affects children's brain development: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=brVOYtNMmKk



Other sources :
Bandura's Social Learning Theory (SLT): http://www.simplypsychology.org/bandura.html
Boy A - film about one of the boys who killed James Bulger
The Bystander Effect
Milgram's Obedience Paradigm
Asch Conformity

Various 'evil' moments from films chosen by students.



Eleverne skal kunne:

– forstå forholdsvis komplekst mundtligt og skriftligt engelsk om emnet Evil

– beherske et varieret ordforråd, som gør det muligt ubesværet at deltage i en samtale og diskussion på engelsk

– give en længere, velstruktureret mundtlig og skriftlig fremstilling på flydende, korrekt engelsk af de særlige, komplekse sagsforhold, der knytter sig til emnet Evil

– gøre rede for indhold, synspunkter og stilforskelle i forskellige tekster og mediestof, herunder klip fra de udvalgte film

– analysere og fortolke under anvendelse af faglig terminologi

– perspektivere det givne materiale litteraturhistorisk, kulturelt, samfundsmæssigt og historisk

– anvende en grundviden om historiske, kulturelle og samfundsmæssige forhold i Storbritannien og USA til analyse og perspektivering af aktuelle forhold

– analysere og beskrive engelsk sprog grammatisk og stilistisk med anvendelse af relevant faglig terminologi, hvilket trænes løbende ved indlagte, grammatiske øvelser, herunder specielt træning af delprøve 1-eksempler.
Indhold
Kernestof:
Omfang Estimeret: 12,00 moduler
Dækker over: 18 moduler
Særlige fokuspunkter
Væsentligste arbejdsformer
Titel 2 Tema 2 Trial Proceedings and The Death Penalty

The Death Penalty and Trial Proceedings in the US

Materials

The Murder Trial of Shawn Ford

My Sons on Death Row. Mirror Woman. 1991

https://www.nytimes.com/2016/09/18/opinion/sunday/what-i-learned-from-executing-two-men.html

(Students write papers on either one of the texts above, focusing on the use of literary devices and the intention of the writer)

Texts on how Trials are conducted in the US.

Cases on bullying and on crimes committed by mentally unstable people.

http://thoughtcatalog.com/jim-goad/2015/04/15-teen-bullying-cases/

Students stage a play of a court trial involving teen girls who allegedly bullied a girl to death.



Eleverne skal kunne:

– forstå forholdsvis komplekst mundtligt og skriftligt engelsk om emnet dødsstraf

– beherske et varieret ordforråd, som gør det muligt ubesværet at deltage i en samtale og diskussion på engelsk

– give en længere, velstruktureret mundtlig præsentation i form af et courtroom drama, som eleverne selv fremfører.

– gøre rede for indhold, synspunkter og stilforskelle i forskellige tekster og mediestof, herunder analysere non-fiction ud fra argumentationsteoretiske begreber.

– analysere og fortolke under anvendelse af faglig terminologi

– perspektivere det givne materiale litteraturhistorisk, kulturelt, samfundsmæssigt og historisk

– anvende en grundviden om historiske, kulturelle og samfundsmæssige forhold i Storbritannien og USA til analyse og perspektivering af aktuelle forhold

– analysere og beskrive engelsk sprog grammatisk og stilistisk med anvendelse af relevant faglig terminologi, hvilket trænes løbende ved indlagte, grammatiske øvelser, herunder specielt træning af delprøve 1-eksempler.
Indhold
Kernestof:

Skriftligt arbejde:
Titel Afleveringsdato
Rewrite and Translate 01-02-2019
Paper Non-fiction 1 11-02-2019
Omfang Estimeret: 10,00 moduler
Dækker over: 10 moduler
Særlige fokuspunkter
Væsentligste arbejdsformer
Titel 3 TEMA 3 Going Mental


Material
Haddon, Mark: The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Nighttime.

https://www.englishandmedia.co.uk/assets/uploads/preview_files/Curious_preview-preview.pdf

https://jessbarga.wikispaces.com/file/view/The+Curious+Incident+of+the+Dog+In+the+night+time.pdf

http://jss.laurel.esu1.org/nbecker/Mrs._Beckers_Page/English_Enhancement/Entries/2013/8/23_The_Curious_Incident_of_the_Dog_in_the_Night-Time_by_Mark_Haddon_files/Curious%20Incident%20Study%20Guide.pdf

Macmillan, Duncan: Every Brilliant Thing. 2015, pp. 22-27.Goi

Edgar Allen Poe's poem 'Alone':
Alone

From childhood’s hour I have not been
As others were—I have not seen
As others saw—I could not bring
My passions from a common spring—
From the same source I have not taken
My sorrow—I could not awaken
My heart to joy at the same tone—
And all I lov’d—I lov’d alone—
Then—in my childhood—in the dawn
Of a most stormy life—was drawn
From ev’ry depth of good and ill
The mystery which binds me still—
From the torrent, or the fountain—
From the red cliff of the mountain—
From the sun that ’round me roll’d
In its autumn tint of gold—
From the lightning in the sky
As it pass’d me flying by—
From the thunder, and the storm—
And the cloud that took the form
(When the rest of Heaven was blue)
Of a demon in my view—

Links about Autism and Depression:
https://www.autismspeaks.org/what-autism/symptoms

https://www.psychologytoday.com/basics/autism

Other links
http://www.learn-english-today.com/idioms/idiom-categories/madness/madness.html

FILM: Rainman


Grammatiske foci:

Fejlsætninger
Relative pronominer

Opgaver grammatik:
Eng B, del 1, 19 maj 2017
Indhold
Kernestof:
Omfang Estimeret: 15,00 moduler
Dækker over: 16 moduler
Særlige fokuspunkter
Væsentligste arbejdsformer
Titel 4 TEMA 4 GOTHIC FICTION

Film clips:

Psycho:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s22lNU5jXM4

IT: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SFejUSu3iDE

Hereditary
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7uWQVdNKUrk

The shining
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4lQ_MjU4QHw
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FLjixsUEj5E


Edgar Allan Poe 'The Tell-Tale Heart.' (1843)
Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, 1823 (excerpt from Fields of Vision)
Alison Moore: Eastmouth, 2014. Postmodern Gothic fiction.

Film: evt: Bram Stoker's Dracula (Coppola, 1992) + group work and written exercises about love and desire in Dracula and Twilight.

Various text about the genre:
Defining Gothic
Elements of Gothic
The Gothic in Horror
Gothic Horror Archetypes
Morrow and McGrath's introduction to the Gothic.
https://thepsychologist.bps.org.uk/volume-24/edition-11/lure-horror

Forløbet ligger i forlængelse af temaet om Evil, da de to temaer supplerer hinanden i forhold til at afdække de mørke sider af den menneskelige psyke, samt menneskets møde med sig selv i litteraturen. Litterærhistorisk dække dette tema The Romantic Period, men med fokus på Gothic Tales som genre.

Formålet er at give eleverne et mere systematisk indblik i de arketypiske træk, som er klassiske for genren, med henblik på at perspektivere til både temaet om disppositionel og intern ondskab, og til menneskets forhold til Gud, videnskab og naturen.

I The Tell Tale Heart arbejder vi med at identificere gotiske elementer og de litterære virkemidler, der underbygger genren. Begrebet 'the unreliable narrator' er en del af analysen, og der er fokus på, hvordan fortælleren forholder sig til sig selv og til læseren/modtageren. Ligeledes arbejdes der i mindre omfang med, hvordan teksten kan anskues i et psykodynamisk perpektiv. Der er dersuden fokus på symbolik, og på den tvetydighed, som plottet rummer.I forbindelse med Frankenstein rummer forløbet således et fokus på etik i forhold til menneskets evne til at gøre videnkskabelige fremskridt, der overtager Guds rolle. Stephen Kings novelle giver et eksempel på, hvordan genren anvendes i mere moderne form.


Eleverne skal kunne:
Udtrykke sig om genren med et relevant begrebsapparat
Analysere teksterne med brugen af litterære termer (se tema 1)
Fortolke tekstnerne på baggrund af den litterære periodes særtræk
Perspektivere til andre tekster fra andre temaer, samt til samfundsrelevante emner.




http://www.scasd.org/cms/lib5/PA01000006/Centricity/Domain/1252/The%20Boogeyman.pdf
Indhold
Kernestof:
Omfang Estimeret: Ikke angivet
Dækker over: 11 moduler
Særlige fokuspunkter
Væsentligste arbejdsformer
Titel 5 TEMA 5 DYSTOPIAS AND FEMINISM (Handmaid's Tale)

TEMA: Dystopias and Feminism: a study of Attwood’s A Handmaid’s Tale

Formålet med forløbet er at give et indblik i dystopien som genre, her med fokus på kvindens rolle i samfundet. Vi arbejder med analytiske begreber, der knytter sig til dytopier, og med klassiske, tekstanalytiske begreber. For at give et indblik i genren, læses indledningsvist et uddrag om generelle genretræk, og herefter vil fokus være på uddrag af Attwoods roman, samt på klip fra HBOs serie af samme navn. Her vil vi foretage komparative analyser af de stilistiske virkemidler, der anvendes i hhv. tekst og billede, hvorfor centrale filmanalytiske begreber kommer i spil. Der vil løbende indgå grammatiske opgaver, der knytter sig til forløbets indhold.

Materialer

Hvad er dystopier og utopier? Kort ark med begreber samt denne tekst:
https://www.tor.com/2011/04/11/dystopian-fiction-an-introduction/

TED-talk
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6a6kbU88wu0

Introduction to Dystopian Fiction
https://teachers.yale.edu/curriculum/viewer/initiative_15.01.06_u


Romanen Handmaid’s Tale – læses med fokus på kap 1-5

1) https://icmotrospaises.files.wordpress.com/2016/07/the-handmaids-tale-margaret-atwood.pdf


Arbejdspapir
2) https://www.englishandmedia.co.uk/assets/uploads/preview_files/EMC_HT_Sample.pdf



From the document from Yale University:

Definitions
The Oxford English Dictionary defines “dystopia” as, “An imagined place or state in which everything is unpleasant or bad.” 11 Simply put, it is a futuristic, or present-day place in which society is controlled in undesired ways. Wikipedia defines dystopia as, “The idea of a society generally of a speculative future, characterized by negative and anti-utopian elements varying from environmental, or political/social issues.” The word itself is derived from the Greek, “dys,” which means bad or difficult. “Topia,” is a place or landscape. But, how can a society become a dystopia?12
A “utopia” is an ideal or perfect society in present day or future times but is thought to be unachievable or non-existing. It is a vision of a much-improved world not yet in existence but better than the society we currently live in. Though this very concept is revolutionary, “utopia” is often times referred to as “no place” because many of its characteristics are beyond actualization. While the events in adolescent dystopian literature are often times exaggerated forms of tyranny and suffering, at the core, there is truth in them.13
In our world, we know the suffering caused by utopias in history that were much better characterized as dystopias: Stalin’s Soviet Union, Maoist China, and of course, Nazi Germany. Existing in each society were oppressive governmental rule and the unfortunate “have-nots”, which led to death and destruction of the masses. So, history has shown us that utopias are dystopias in disguise: a wolf in sheep’s clothing or the wolf with sharp teeth, piercing eyes, and no sympathy for the sheep he hunts. The wolf’s utopia is the sheep’s dystopia or disguised one. This means that history has also proven that utopias, while justifiable in theory, are not sustainable in reality. Therefore, they are destined to fail.
So, why should students read and understand adolescent dystopian literature? Books are our way of examining the faults in our society and lives in comparison to the utopia we all deep down wish to achieve, though it is unachievable. Dystopian literature, specifically, helps us to realize the immoral nature of our society as well as its potential to change. Mankind has experienced oppression, slavery, war, death, and utter ruin that we never thought would come to pass. If books could have revealed the events of history before their arrival, we’d be reading more dystopian literature to learn more about historical dystopian events so that we could prevent further destruction of human society.
[…]
Characteristics Of Dystopian Literature
There are certain characteristics of dystopian literature that set it apart from other types of fiction. These characteristics include the restriction of information, independent thought, and freedom. Totalitarian control prevents the people in the story from acting and speaking freely. This control is typically an authoritarian government within a society that is characterized by absolute power over the lives of its citizens. This type of system is rarely, if ever, challenged. In many dystopian novels, the people are constantly watched and in fear of consequences that may be given if they so choose to rebel against the laws of their government. They are controlled by rules, caste systems, and specialized jobs, and therefore, must conform to the expectations of the government. As we already know, conformity conflicts with citizens’ rights to expression, choice, and individuality.
The idea of specialization was notably introduced in Greek philosopher Plato’s The Republic, in which he emphasizes that each member of society is most suitable for a specific role in society and must remain in each of their places.14 Specialization guarantees that all people remain in their specific roles in society without power or influence to interfere with governmental rule. People in this society are convinced that this is a true utopia, when in fact it is oppressive, demoralizing, and unwanted – which is the true definition of a dystopia.
On the other hand, in order to understand the complex nature of a dystopia, one must understand a utopia and its very dissimilar characteristics. The modern world “utopia” was first popularized in English philosopher Thomas More’s 16th century book, Utopia. In this narrative, Portuguese traveler Raphael Hythloday contrasts the laws and customs of 16th century Europe while admiring the ideal characteristics of the island of Utopia. In Utopia, and in a utopian society, public welfare, selflessness, peace, tolerance, and specialization, as stated in Plato’s work, are the common goals of government and people.15 There are no laws, private poverty, crime, war, or oppression. However, not even the paradise described in Utopia relinquished control and avoided laws that would dictate the actions of the utopians.
In Paradise Lost, John Milton narrates his poem about the loss of what was supposed to be the first utopia known to man, the Garden of Eden. Unfortunately, the sins of Adam and Eve when tempted by Satan’s lies of knowledge and freedom destroyed the only utopia that Earth had ever known and will ever know. Satan achieved his mission, to introduce sin to the world through manipulation and disempowerment of God’s people.16 Therefore, it is important to note that even in a utopian society, there will always be people who must sacrifice their freedoms (or are tricked into giving them up) for the hidden agenda of those with power and influence. That leaves us to conclude that a utopia can never really exist in today’s age, and creating a utopia means creating a dystopia in place of it.
Types Of Control In A Dystopian Society
Dystopian societies are maintained through one or more dystopian controls that oppress the weaker class in those societies. They include corporate control, bureaucratic control, technological control, and philosophical/religious control. In a dystopian society that imposes corporate control on its people, corporations have dictatorship over products, advertising, and media. Bureaucratic control involves governmental control of policies and regulations that impose on the individuality and desired lifestyle of the people. Technological control is achieved through technological means, including computers, cellphones, robots, and/or other forms of technology. A dystopian government that uses philosophical or religious control over its people, controls the beliefs and religious ideologies of its people.17
Themes Of Dystopian Literature
There are several themes that should be discussed when teaching dystopian literature. The first is politics. As stated before, dystopias are defined by governmental rule that invites negative feelings from its citizens. This pessimism typically leads to an uprising or revolution of the oppressed members of society. These people are referred to as protagonists. Another theme found in dystopian literature is economics. The government controls the economy by deciding whom works, what jobs they have, and how much money they make, if any. This controlled economic system leads to deprivation of meaningful job responsibilities, minimal compensation, and no opportunity for career advancement. Money and opportunity are reserved for the elite. Social stratification is yet another theme found in dystopian literature. Dystopian societies are typically divided into the very privileged ruling class and the overworked working class. The lower class often times is conditioned for job satisfaction and acceptance of the difficulties that come with being a part of the working class.18
In many dystopian novels, you will also find that family is a central theme of the book. Families are often, eliminated from the beginning as yet another way to control people through assignment and social systems. As a theme, religion can play a positive or negative role in dystopian literature. In certain novels, religious groups are in favor of more rights and freedoms for the working class. In others, religious groups are the oppressive government who enforces totalitarian control on the helpless. Often times in dystopian literature, the government will try to strip its’ society’s citizens of their identities in order to reprogram them to accept being ruled. Identity is a theme that shows up many times in dystopian literature.19
Violence is also common in this genre of literature. Eventually the working class becomes tired of being controlled and an uprising ensues. This war is typically the climax of the story, but not always. Though subtle in some novels, nature can also be a theme in dystopian novels. Often times, dystopian settings will be urban or rural, desolate, polluted, and/or dangerous. Many of them depict a post-apocalyptic era where a major global change has happened, the atmosphere has been contaminated, or nature is controlled like everything else. It shouldn’t be surprising that in this genre, the main characters or the entire working class must live underground at some point in the book. Finally, technology is also a theme found in dystopian novels. Technology, instead of having a positive effect on human society, poses a threat to the liberties of the lower class of those living in a dystopia. Technology is used to reinforce hierarchies, control the spread and use of information, and even destroy nature. It can also be true that technology acts as its own ruler with all of the people acting as the oppressed lower class. Inventions and advancements in technology merely create more control of the working class.20


Unit Essential Questions and Discussion Prompts
1. Can a society ever achieve a utopia?
2. How are utopian and dystopian societies similar and dissimilar?
3. What are your own visions and ideas for a perfect world?
4. What can someone do when faced with lack of power and choice?
5. What kind of responsibility does a person have to society when he disagrees with authority?
6. What is the American Dream? Could it be different for different people?
7. Is the American Dream achievable for a member of a dystopian society?
8. How do people show resilience in the face of extreme oppression?
9. What is the value of having differences?
10. Why would a community choose to eliminate differences?
11. How would our world change if everyone were the same?
12. How do people’s differences impact your life?
13. How do multiple authors address themes in dystopian literature?
14. Why is dystopian literature prevalent today?
Utopia and Dystopia

Before class, I will place four statement posters (“Strongly Agree,” “Agree Somewhat,” “Disagree Somewhat,” and “Strongly Disagree”) in the corners of my classroom. Students will move around to stand beneath the statements with which they most agree or relate. I will read the following statements aloud:

1. In an ideal society, everyone is equal.
2. It is better to be ignorant and happy than to be aware and upset.
3. Rules exist to help us live our lives properly.
4. The police should be allowed to do whatever they can to protect the community.
5. Schools are places where teens are subject to dress codes, have few free speech rights, and are constantly under surveillance, where they rise and sit at the sound of a bell. This is too controlling.
6. It is okay to upset some people as long as you’re doing what is best for society.
7. If you know you are right, you shouldn’t listen to anyone else.
8. We should understand how small and powerless we really are against the immense forces that control our existence.
Indhold
Kernestof:
Omfang Estimeret: 10,00 moduler
Dækker over: 8 moduler
Særlige fokuspunkter
Væsentligste arbejdsformer
Titel 6 TEMA 6 Casualties of War - Tim O'Brien

I forhold til forløbets progression, lægger vi ud med at læse citater fra linket ovenfor, for på den måde at få et overblik over grundlæggende holdninger til vietnamkrigen, og for at debattere hvorledes man kan definere, hvem krigens ofre er. På den måde åbnes emnet med en generel diskussion af, hvad der får unge mænd til at begå forbrydelser i krig, og hvordan  soldaters skæbne senere håndteres. Her af den amerikanske regering.

Dernæst følger Tim O'Briens 'fiktion', der nødvendigvis må sættes i citationstegn, da hans fortællinger netop udvisker grænserne mellem fiktion og fakta. Vi skal her analysere den måde, hvorpå O'Brien bruger fiktionen som en tyndt mellemlag mellem de traumatiske oplevelser han har haft som soldat og det traume, der er forbundet med at gentage oplevelserne med ord. Vi skal tale om, hvordan litteratur kan have en katarsisk effekt for den som skriver, om end denne renselse ikke er entydig. Forfatteren finder det umuligt, men nødvendigt at fortælle om handlinger, der er forbundet med krigens skam. Hvordan adskiller man sig fra sig selv, når man fortæller om sig selv? Hvorfor har forfatteren behov for at ’disclaime’, at historierne handler om ham? Det er blot en del af de emner, vi tager op.

Det er ikke Vietnam som sådan der er i fokus i dette forløb, men de menneskelige omkostninger ved en krig.


Formål:
Faglige mål er
- at kunne diskutere komplekse emner på et fagligt grundlag. Det vil sige, at kunne sætte en problemstilling i relation til en socio-kulturel kontekst, og derved formulere en nuanceret holdning til den.
- at arbejde med brudfladerne mellem fiktion og fakta, og forholde sig fagligt til autobiografiske elementer i en tekst.
- at vurdere moralske dilemmaer og kriser i som tematiske omdrejningspunkter i tekst
- at anvende faglige, analytiske termer (metafor, metonymi, simili) i skrift og tale på engelsk
- at diskutere litterært stof på et fagligt grundlag
- at kunne strukturere og problemformulere i forbindelse med litterært stof

Produkt:
En skriftlig aflevering i form af en bunden opgave, hvor eleven skal analysere og fortolke tekster af O’Brien.



The Things They Carried Vietnam War Literature

Mette Morell, Nørre

Gymnasium




Core Material is excerpts from the novel:

1) ’The Things They Carried’
2) ’How To Tell A True War Story’
3) The Man I killed
4) ‘Ambush’
5) Good Form (read out loud)




Lesson
Reading
Activities
1
’The Things They Carried’ pp 1-11
Pick your favorite quote from the list here: http://www.goodreads.com/quotes/tag/vietnam-war

Work sheet 1 + Work sheet 2

Clip the quotes and have the students stand around in pairs reading them to each other.
2
’The Things They Carried’ pp 11-21
Work sheet 1
Pick up on the exercise from last lesson if necessary.

Talk a bit about the perspective and the use of sub-clauses used in descriptions about Lavender (”when he was shot”) that create distance in the narrative.

Exercise Work sheet 3 set up in Google Docs.

Read out loud to students: ‘Good Form’ (p. 177 in The Things). Briefly discuss ‘Story Truth’ ‘vs Happening Truth’

Clip for discussion – Napalm:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ev2dEqrN4i0

End with song about Vietnam to end class – Marvin Gaye’s What’s Going On
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H-kA3UtBj4M

3
’How To Tell A True War Story’ pp 67-75

Students read the remainder of the text out loud in class (pp 75-80), and we discuss the nature of truth and true stories.

Analysis of selected quotes: Students work in pairs or small groups, and select quotes from the text that describe the nature of a true war story. Upload in a padlet to share.

Work Sheet 4 - Translation exercise: ‘Fiktion eller virkelighed?’ Students translate in small groups.

Discussion about how the idea of a double contract may be used in The Things They Carried.
4
’How To Tell A True War Story’ pp 67-80
Further discussion about the possibility of segregating between fiction on one hand and non-fiction on the other.

Students work in small groups and write 50 words in which the define fiction and non-fiction. Share with another group.

Work Sheet 5:
Students comment on the (modified) quote from a supposed student (actually from Cliff Notes). Inspires a discussion of how to write about fiction.


5
‘The Man I Killed’ pp 121-125
Analysis in class based on these questions:

1. How does the narrator react to the fact that he killed another human being? What evidence in the story leads you to this conclusion?
2. How is the dead man described by the narrator? By Kiowa?
3. This story describes fairly intimate aspects of the dead man’s life. Where do these details come from?
4. How are colors used in this text? What do they symbolize?
5. Comment on the role of the butterfly and the star used in the description of the dead Vietnamese.
6. Why is the final sentence in the story ‘Talk to me’?

In class – students read Work Sheet 6, and prepare brief student presentations about:

ϖ The role of the climate
ϖ The soldiers’ homecoming
ϖ Drafting procedures
ϖ Blacks and Whites
ϖ Drug use
ϖ Agent Orange

Create a PowerPoint of 3 slides. 5-7-minute presentation. Search extra information online, and use pictures. Here is a link: http://blogs.sacbee.com/photos/2010/04/looking-back-at-the-vietnam-wa.html

One person from each group will present.
6
‘Ambush’ pp 129-131
Student presentation from last lesson.

Postmodernism and how it relates to O’Brien’s literature – Teacher presentation: https://www.slideshare.net/secret/tmohBAM2Qqks7r


The notion of ‘truth’
Meaninglessness
Fragmentation

Central quote from The Things They Carried:

”To generalize about war is like generalizing about peace. Almost everything is true. Almost nothing is true.”

7
Movie: Cubrick’s
‘Full Metal Jacket’ (1987)

8
Final lesson
Work shop – postmodern traits in O’Brien’s fiction.



Work sheet 1


QUESTIONS for group-work


The Things They Carried (1)


1) Describe the narrative point of view. Also, consider the style and tone of narration in the following lines:
a. “Until he was shot, Ted Lavender carried six or seven ounces of premium dope, which for him was a necessity” (p. 4).
b. “In April, for instance, when Ted Lavender was shot, they used his poncho to wrap him up, then to carry him away across the paddy, then to lift him into the chopper that took him away” (p. 4-5)

2) List some of the things they carry and consider their significance on
a. a concrete level
b. a metaphorical level


3) Why do you think O’Brien chose to list the things they carried? What would the alternative be? What literary effect does it have? What effect does it have on you as readers?

4) Explain the verb ‘to hump’ (p. 5) in its transitive and intransitive form.


5) Describe Lieutenant Jimmy Cross

a. How is he portrayed?
b. What does he carry?
c. How is his relation to Martha? How is she described? (see p. 5 in which her pictures are described)
d. What does the pebble represent? (cf. p. 8) Explain the quote: “[…she] bent down to rescue it from geology”.
e. How does is his take on the concept of her Love?
f. Why does he hate her towards the ending?

6) How is Ted Lavender’s death described? Consider and explain the quote: “The guy’s dead, he kept saying, which seemed profound – the guy’s dead. I mean, really” (p. 11)



Work sheet 2

Comment on a quote from The Things They Carried, Tim O’Brien 1991.

1. Who or what is the quote about?
2. What does the quote show?
3. What characterizes the style and tone of writing/language? (use at least two literary terms)


Quote 1
In the late afternoon, after a day's march, he would dig his foxhole, wash his hands under a canteen, unwrap the letters, hold them with the tips of his fingers, and spend the last hour of light pretending. He would imagine romantic camping trips into the White Mountains in New Hampshire. He would sometimes taste the envelope flaps, knowing her tongue had been there.



Quote 2
The things they carried were largely determined by necessity. Among the necessities or near-necessities were P-38 can openers, pocket knives, heat tabs, wristwatches, dog tags, mosquito repellent, chewing gum, candy, cigarettes, salt tablets, packets of Kool-Aid, lighters, matches, sewing kits, Military Payment Certificates, C rations, and two or three canteens of water. Together, these items weighed between 15 and 20 pounds, depending upon a man's habits or rate of metabolism.



Quote 3
Ted Lavender, who was scared, carried tranquilizers until he was shot in the head outside the village of Than Khe in mid-April. By necessity, and because it was SOP, they all carried steel helmets that weighed 5 pounds including the liner and camouflage cover.



Quote 4
Mitchell Sanders, the RTO, carried condoms. Norman Bowker carried a diary. Rat Kiley carried comic books. Kiowa, a devout Baptist, carried an illustrated New Testament that had been presented to him by his father, who taught Sunday school in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. As a hedge against bad times, however, Kiowa also carried his grandmother's distrust of the white man, his grandfather's old hunting hatchet.



Quote 5
Because the land was mined and booby-trapped, it was SOP for each man to carry a steel-centered, nylon-covered flak jacket, which weighed 6.7 pounds, but which on hot days seemed much heavier. Because you could die so quickly, each man carried at least one large compress bandage, usually in the helmet band for easy access.



Quote 6
They were called legs or grunts.
To carry something was to hump it, as when Lieutenant Jimmy Cross humped his love for Martha up the hills and through the swamps. In its intransitive form, to hump meant to walk, or to march, but it implied burdens far beyond the intransitive.



Quote 7
He [Jimmy Cross] remembered kissing her good night at the dorm door. Right then, he thought, he should've done something brave. He should've carried her up the stairs to her room
and tied her to the bed and touched that left knee all night long. He should've risked it. Whenever he looked at the photographs, he thought of new things he should've done.



Quote 8
But Ted Lavender, who was scared, carried 34 rounds when he was shot and killed outside Than Khe, and he went down under an exceptional burden, more than 20 pounds of ammunition, plus the flak jacket and helmet and rations and water and toilet paper and tranquilizers and all the rest, plus the unweighed fear.



Quote 9
He [Ted Lavender] was dead weight. There was no twitching or flopping. Kiowa, who saw it happen, said it was like watching a rock fall, or a big sandbag or something—just boom, then down—not like the movies where the dead guy rolls around and does fancy spins and goes ass over teakettle—not like that, Kiowa said, the poor bastard just flat-fuck fell. Boom. Down.



Quote 10
They all carried at least one M-18 colored smoke grenade—24 ounces. Some carried CS or tear gas grenades. Some carried white phosphorus grenades. They carried all they could bear, and then some, including a silent awe for the terrible power of the things they carried



Quote 11
On occasion he [Jimmy Cross] would yell at his men to spread out the column, to keep their eyes open, but then he would slip away into daydreams, just pretending, walking barefoot along the Jersey shore, with Martha, carrying nothing. He would feel himself rising. Sun and waves and gentle winds, all love and lightness.



Quote 12
Lee Strunk made a funny ghost sound, a kind of moaning, yet very happy, and right then, when Strunk made that high happy moaning sound, when he went Ahhooooo, right then Ted Lavender was shot in the head on his way back from peeing. He lay with his mouth open. The teeth were broken. There was a swollen black bruise under his left eye. The cheekbone was gone. Oh shit, Rat Kiley said, the guy's dead. The guy's dead, he kept saying, which seemed profound—the guy's dead. I mean really.


Comment on a quote from The Things They Carried, Tim O’Brien 1991.

4. Who or what is the quote about?
5. What does the quote show?
6. What characterizes the style and tone of writing/language? (use at least two literary terms)


Work Sheet 3

Read out loud to each other from page 12 (“They Carried USO stationary...”) to page 15 (“...shut up, ”), and answer the two questions below. Write in this document.

1. How would you describe the tone in O’Brien’s short story The Things They Carried? Give examples from the text in the box below:

Tone:
Examples (Quotes)
Clinical

Emotional
.
Intense


Cynical

Funny

Harsh

Playful

Sorrowful

Happy

Violent





2. Pinpoint two uses of literary devices in O’Brien’s The Things They Carried, and explain briefly how they affect the narration of the story. Show the quote in the box.

Device
Quote and effect
Metaphor

Simile

Anaphora

Juxtaposition (contrasts)

Imagery

Personification/anthropomorphism

Euphemism

Ambiguity




Work Sheet 4

Oprindeligt af Birgitte Tindbæk 01.02.2011 (excerperet version til undervisningsbrug)
Fiktion eller virkelighed?
Vi ved godt, at stort set intet i romaner kommer ud af den blå luft; der er lang tradition i litteraturen for at bruge virkelige personer og begivenheder og forvandle dem til fiktion. Eller som Virginia Woolf sagde: "Fiction is like a spider's web, attached ever so lightly perhaps, but still attached to life at all four corners."
Der var engang, hvor man kunne regne med, at en bog enten var dokumentarisk eller fiktion, men sådan er det ikke længere: nu kan den være både dokumentarisk og fiktion, men dermed også hverken dokumentarisk eller fiktion. Det er den genre, litteraten Poul Behrendt har kaldt ’dobbeltkontrakten’, for mellem enhver forfatter og hans læser findes en underforstået aftale - en uskreven kontrakt, som traditionelt har gået ud på, at enten var alt i bogen sandt - noget der havde fundet sted i virkeligheden - eller det modsatte: alt var opdigtet.
Dobbeltkontrakten betyder, at et værk sagtens kan være fiktion, en roman, men samtidig også har elementer, der peger på en konkret virkelighed bag fiktionen. [Men] hvad sker der når man bruger rigtige mennesker – med navns nævnelse i romaner? Kan man skrive hvad som helst, bare man kalder teksten ’roman’? Uklarheden mellem selvbiografi og prosa, mellem virkelighed og fiktion, åbner nye, udfordrende muligheder for litteraturen.

Work Sheet 5
Comment on this quote from a university student’s essay. Would you elaborate more on the use of anaphora here? If yes, how so?

“One narrative technique that O'Brien uses is repetition. O'Brien frequently retells certain incidents, often adding incremental detail with each telling. One example of this is the scene of Kiowa's death, which, retold five times, is the core of most of the novel's action and the catalyst for most characters' development. Readers often overlook the importance of this repetition by mistaking it as redundancy. Instead, the repetition is a stylistic technique O'Brien employs to illuminate the truth of a story by adding and subtracting telling detail. The effect of this is a feeling that simulates O'Brien's intense obsession with the stories he tells and retells because they run through his memory almost constantly.”
Work Sheet 6

Problems Faced by Soldiers in the Vietnam War
During the Vietnam War, American’s fought primarily in the jungle. The climate was very humid and wet and the jungle itself was very dirty with rain being extremely prevalent through Vietnam. During the early years of the war the M16, the primary assault rifle of the American military, did not handle the climate well at all. The rifle would jam frequently and the wet and dirty climate would also hinder its performance. Cleaning kits were not given during the first years as well, making it even harder to have a functioning weapon during war. This put the American soldiers at a huge disadvantage. The primary weapon the Vietnamese used was the AK-47, a cheap and easily made Soviet assault rifle. The AK-47 could be used in practically any weather condition and hardly ever needs to be cleaned. In the dirty and wet Vietnamese environment, the AK-47 stood up to everything and still preformed phenomenally. The differences in primary weapons between the US and the Vietnamese put the US at a huge disadvantage.
Many American soldiers during the Vietnam War suffered from disease. Common diseases were malaria, dysentery and trench foot as a medical condition. Malaria can be detected by a high fever, anemia and flulike symptoms. Soldiers took malaria pills, but if they did not and were not treated properly, they could have suffered from organ failure and death. Dysentery is basically bloody diarrhea. It was extremely common amongst US soldiers and it hospitalized many. Trench foot was a medical condition in the foot caused by feet immersed in water for prolonged periods of time. Many soldiers got trench foot from wearing their wet boots and socks for hours, or days, without changing them. Discoloration, numbness and sores can form from trench foot, and if left untreated, it could turn into gangrene, a flesh eating condition.
More than 3,000,000 American soldiers served in Vietnam during the Vietnam War. Of those soldiers, over 58,000 soldiers died and over 300,000 were injured. This massive casualty list was very crucial during the war. Although there had been millions of troops through Vietnam, the constant dying and injuries of soldiers took a toll on others. Many soldiers during the war would experience harsh mental conditions. A study found that from the 3,000,000 plus soldiers that served in Vietnam, almost 19% of them returned suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD is an anxiety disorder caused by a traumatic experience, such as fighting in a war.The constant fighting, death and injury on both the American and Vietnamese sides scarred many soldiers who served in Vietnam. During, and after the war, Vietnam veterans committed suicide from the extreme condition in which they were placed.
African American’s had a significantly large role in the infantry units of U.S. forces during the Vietnam War. They made up 12.6 percent of the armed forces. The African American’s were used as a way to protect the white soldiers from fighting. The war was known as, “A white man's war, and a black man's fight." The U.S claimed that this was the time that blacks in America would earn their respect and place in society. Many riots occurred throughout navy ships as well as in black infantry squadrons. The draft was unfair to African American’s living in the U.S. as it seemed to be constantly selecting them to be placed in the line of duty. Although African American’s were discriminated against, there was a major effort to lessen the amount of black soldiers being placed on the front lines towards the end of the war. This did not make up for heinous acts in which theU.S. set upon the African American community residing in the country.

U.S. soldiers fighting in Vietnam had no moral support from fellow citizens. A massive number of people were against the U.S. entering the war in Vietnam. Many people despised the draft as it was unfair in many ways. Protests became larger and larger as the U.S. involvement in the war grew. People all over the U.S. were against the fighting, especially those who were part of the black community. Muhammad Ali played a large role in the protesting against soldiers fighting in Vietnam. He was arrested for refusing to fight as well as for the protests which he started. He was one of many distinguished black figures to whom others looked up towards. The lack of moral support created a disadvantage for the American soldiers due to the fact that nobody back home was supporting their actions. Many soldiers were greatly impacted by the protests occurring back home, which made them regret what they were doing.


Drug abuse became a major problem among U.S. soldiers fighting in Vietnam. Although many people claimed that a large portion of soldiers became cocaine abusers, this is not true. The drug that was abused throughout all divisions of the armed forces was marijuana. There was an overabundance of marijuana available to soldiers in Vietnam, as it was a popular plant to be grown in that country. Vietnam did not have many laws to regulate the trafficking of marijuana and did not seem to care much about having any involvement. The first division of armed forces who became regular users of the drug was the marines. The marines would receive the seeds from dealers in towns or from guards while they had been imprisoned and would grow the plants above the shower stalls. The water would fulfill the plants needs, and once grown, the marines would kill the plant by rapping it plastic and then proceed to roll it using toilet paper. Marines who were caught using the drug were court-marshaled, but the army did not care as much. The main problem was that the politicians were scared that the use of the drug would compromise missions. The politicians didn’t know that there was a system set up among the soldiers so that the drug was only used when not in a combat situation. Many soldiers were sent to rehabilitation centers set up by the army, but they soon became overflowed with patients. The problem was partially attended to, although it was not fixed.

Zach and I believe that there are always problems with war. Although we did cover many, we know that there are many more, some that can be life threatening. Because the Vietnam War was so much more different than World War I and II, many problems were different. The most amazing part about the problems during the war are that many can still be seen today, ranging from the families suffering from Agent Orange exposure to the Vietnam Memorial, designed by Maya Lin.
We hope to see a lot of these problems being portrayed in the book. It would be more interesting to see many problems and issues that we did not know about, or if the problems we did know about were talked about in great detail.
SOURCES:
http://military.discovery.com/technology/weapons/rifles-01.html
http://www.paperlessarchives.com/vw_m16.html
http://www.historynet.com/us-vietnam-war-soldiers-and-malaria.htm
http://militarythoughts.blogspot.com/2006/06/this-is-coolbert-jungle-i.html
http://www.tititudorancea.com/z/trench_foot.htm
http://www.mrfa.org/vnstats.htm
http://www.news.harvard.edu/gazette/2006/08.24/99-ptsd.html
http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/s_z/stevens/africanamer.htm
http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/protests_vietnam_war.htm
http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/VNprotest.htm
http://www.library.vanderbilt.edu/central/Brush/American-drug-use-vietnam.htm
AIDAN STREIN, ZACH LEDERMAN
Indhold
Kernestof:
Omfang Estimeret: 10,00 moduler
Dækker over: 8 moduler
Særlige fokuspunkter
Væsentligste arbejdsformer
Titel 7 TEMA 7 South Africa - After Apartheid

Primære mål
At arbejde med ordforrådstilegnelse og udviklingen af kommunikative kompetencer, såvel de skriftlige som de mundtlige
At træne analyse og fortolkning af både litterære tekster, ikke-litterære tekster og mediestof, herunder film, med anvendelse af faglig terminologi
At opnå indsigt i og viden om historiske, kulturelle og samfundsmæssige forhold i Sydafrika med fokus på aktuelle forhold


Sekundære mål
At afdække de faglige, didaktiske og pædagogiske muligheder forbundet med anvendelsen af diverse IT-værktøjer i undervisningen med fokus på udviklingen af elevernes mundtlige og skriftlige udtryksfærdighed
At arbejde kollaborativt og undervisningsdifferentieret


Materiale
Kernestof
Gavin Hood: Tsotsi, 2006 (film)
Bille August: Goodbye Bafana, 2007 (film)

David Evans: Dead Man’s Shoes, 1998
Fra: The Big Picture v/ Lene Lundsgaard og Svend Madsen, Systime 2001

Rayda Jacobs: The Guilt, 2001
Fra: Contexts v/Engberg et al, Gyldendal 2003



South Africa's new underclass: poor whites, 1998
Fra: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/south-africas-new-underclass-poor-whites-1144284.html

Poor Whites/Rich Blacks, 2009
Fra: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e5jJSjpztmA&feature=relmfu, 10.01.12



Supplerende stof
Background Note: South Africa, 2008
Fra: http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2898.htm, den 20.09.11

Country profile: South Africa, 2008
Fra: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/country_profiles/1071886.stm, den 20.09.11

South Africa – Fact File
Fra: http://www.eisa.org.za/WEP/sou7.htm , den 10.01.12

The World Factbook
Fra: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sf.html, den 10.01.12
Indhold
Kernestof:
Omfang Estimeret: 10,00 moduler
Dækker over: 17 moduler
Særlige fokuspunkter
Væsentligste arbejdsformer